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The World’s largest pipeline water transfer Projects – Aka Man made rivers



Some nations and regions that are experiencing extreme water challenges are turning to technology and innovation to create long-lasting solutions for future generations.  Here is a list of five of the biggest and most ambitious water pipeline projects.

Ashkelon Desalination Plant, Israel

The Ashkelon Desalination Plant, which opened in 2005, converts more than 26 billion gallons of Mediterranean Sea water into freshwater for the State of Israel each year—5 to 6 percent of total demand. Ashkelon is not only the largest reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the world, but it’s also one of the few public plants to recover waste heat to improve efficiency and reduce costs. The process does require heat, though not as much as distillation. Reverse osmosis works best when the water is around 95 to 100 F. And while the Ashkelon plant operates at the low end of the desalination cost spectrum (52 cents per cubic meter of water) it’s still not cheap, at more than $51 million a year.

North-South Water Transfer Project, China

North-South Water Transfer Project, China

Long before an industrial explosion put China’s natural resources under intense strain, the country suffered a water problem. The mountainous southern region takes in ample precipitation, while the northern region, which has swelled to include more than 200 million people, must rely on limited groundwater supplies. In the 1950s, Communist leader Mao Zedong proposed moving water around the country to balance the scales. Now, half a century later, China has broken ground on the plan, called the North-South Water Transfer Project. When construction finally ends in 2050, the system will feature three different lines: a 716-mile diversion called the “Eastern Route,” a 786-mile “Central Route,” and 310-mile “Western Route.”

South–North Water Transfer Project Central route starting point taocha in Xichuan County, Nanyang, Henan

Moving water across long distances is incredibly energy-intensive—and yet valuable energy is also lost along the way. Even if the pipes are designed to take advantage of gravity, they require dampers every few meters to slow the force of the rushing water. China isn’t the only country to consider huge water transfer projects—a handful is proposed for the western U.S.—but this nationwide, decades-long engineering project takes the cake as the world’s most ambitious. “That takes the insanity to a whole new level,” says Mark Shannon of the University of Illinois and director of the Center for Advanced Materials for the Purification of Water with Systems. While it’s a remarkable feat, he points out that extended drought, reduced snowpacks, and melting glaciers are affecting water supplies world over, including China’s. Even a massive transfer project might not guarantee a constant flow of water.

G-Cans Tunnel System, Tokyo, Japan

On the street level, Tokyo is the world’s most populated metropolitan area, with more than 30 million people crammed into the city. But far below the teeming mass of humanity lies a sprawling system of cavernous tunnels, which are empty most of the time. These tunnels make up G-Cans, a system in the Saitama area, on the outskirts of Tokyo, designed to protect the Japanese capital from flooding in the summer wet season. While much of the world is grappling with potable freshwater shortages caused by chemical pollution and drought, global warming could also exacerbate the severe storms that flood many highly populated areas.

If the waters around Tokyo rise to dangerous levels, G-Cans’ 14,000-hp turbines will begin pumping water out of the Edogawa River and into one of five containment silos—each of which measures about 105 ft in diameter and 213 ft deep. The tunnels connecting those silos stretch about 4 miles, making G-Cans the world’s largest underground waterway. If you find yourself in Tokyo, you can tour this colossal underground complex for free—just bring a Japanese translator.

Marina Reservoir, Singapore

Singapore was in a tough spot when it came to collecting freshwater. This tiny country consists solely of the urban area surrounded mostly by sea, so residents, who now count nearly 5 million strong, had few places from which to draw drinking water. As the population grew, the threat of a water shortage heightened. With limited options, the government blocked off one of the city’s harbors to create an artificial reservoir.

The Marina Barrage, which opened in November, is a dam that spans the 1,150-ft Marina Channel. The nine crest gates, each more than 90 ft high, act as a barrier to keep seawater out of the Marina Reservoir. If it rains during low tide, the barrier is lowered to release water; during high tide, pumps inside the dam can blast water out. Meanwhile, freshwater from precipitation continues to pour in. After one or two years of this cycling, it should be a purely freshwater reservoir.

Singapore’s government says that the Marina Reservoir’s catchment—the area from which it collects water—amounts to one-sixth of the nation’s land area. So while Singapore might not have much land, it’s collecting fresh water from as big an area as possible.

Groundwater Replenishment System, Orange County, Calif.

In some respects, Orange County got lucky: It is one of the few places in California with an ample supply of groundwater, according to Shivaji Deshmukh of the Orange County Water District. But a growing population increased demand for water, and heavy consumption brought with it an even more serious problem: When the groundwater level started to sink below that of the sea, saltwater from the Pacific Ocean came dangerously close to leaching in and ruining the county’s supplies.

To fight back against this seawater intrusion, California scientists built a barrier—one made of water, not of concrete. First, engineers use reverse osmosis, micro-filtration, and UV radiation to purify wastewater, which would normally be discharged into the ocean, to drinking water standards. Then, using a 3-mile stretch of 36 wells, about 5 miles from the coast, they inject the reclaimed water in the ground. The wells, Deshmukh says, resemble pipes with perforations. The pressurized water forms a dam between the ocean and the groundwater basin, keeping saltwater at bay.

Orange County first tried this method in 1975, but the new Groundwater Replenishment System, which began operation in January 2008, can create and inject almost 15 times more purified water, Deshmukh says. This allows the county to expand the seawater barrier and keep up with population growth. With current rates of freshwater withdrawal, he told PM, it takes about 30 million gallons every day to maintain the barrier.

The Great Man-Made River

The Great Man-Made River is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer. It is the world’s largest irrigation project.

It is the largest underground network of pipes (2,820 kilometers (1,750 mi))[2] and aqueducts in the world. It consists of more than 1,300 wells, most more than 500 m deep, and supplies 6,500,000 m3 of freshwater per day to the cities of Tripoli, Benghazi, Sirte and elsewhere
There are four major underground basins. The Kufra basin, lying in the south-east, near the Egyptian border, covers an area of 350,000 square kilometers, forming an aquifer layer more than 2,000m deep, with an estimated capacity of 20,000 square kilometers in the Libyan sector.

The 600m-deep aquifer in the Sirte basin is estimated to hold more than 10,000 square kilometers of water, while the 450,000 square kilometer Murzuk basin, south of Jabal Fezzan, is estimated to hold 4,800 square kilometers. More water lies in the Hamadah and Kufrah basins, which extend from the Qargaf Arch and Jabal Sawda to the coast.

First conceived in the late 1960s, the initial feasibility studies were conducted in 1974, with work starting ten years later. The project, which still has an estimated 25 years to run, was designed in five phases. Each one is largely separate in itself but will eventually combine to form an integrated system.


The Jubail-Riyadh Water Transmission System.

The 412 km long twin pipeline, with two 88” pipes, will be one of the largest water transmission systems worldwide and will transport 1.2 million m³ of potable water per day. The project includes one pumping station in Jubail, two intermediate pumping stations along the route, and two tank farms each with a storage capacity of 1.2 million m³.

For the implementation of the project, the Owner SWCC chose the EPC Contractors LIMAK (station construction) and RTCC (pipeline construction). Both contractors have commissioned ILF for the design works. ILF’s scope covers design services for all disciplines including site support during commissioning.

North Cyprus Water Project

The 107-kilometer pipe will draw water from the Dragon River and unite the Turkish mainland with northern Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea. Proponents are hoping it will unify the island, divided for the past 39 years.

The suspended pipeline, moored to the floor of the seabed and well lower than where submarines can go, will carry freshwater from Turkish sources as much as 280 meters (919 feet) underwater, Bloomberg is reporting. The first kilometer of pipe has been laid, in what will be a $484 million project.

Cypriot government environment commissioner Ioanna Panayiotou said that the pipeline is “not the best solution both in economic — too expensive — and environmental terms. Water is sensitive and might get polluted during the transfer.”

Others think that the water pipe might open the “channel” so that the Turkish north and Greek south can start mending old problems.

Greek Cypriots are already going ahead in their own way by building three more desalination plants to add to its current two plants.

Qatar Water Reservoir

Construction of five mega-reservoirs that aim to boost Qatar’s emergency water supply is now 70 percent complete, Kahramaa officials have announced.

When finished, they will be among the world’s largest reservoirs, with a capacity of some 100 million gallons of water each.

They aim to supply Qatar’s population a seven-day strategic reserve of fresh water.

Work on the $4.7 billion Water Security Mega Reservoirs Project began in 2015, with the initial phases slated to be done next year.

The reservoirs are being built in Um Baraka, Um Salal, Rawdat Rashid, Abu Nakhla, and Al Thumama.

According to the Qatar Tribune, more than 70 percent of reservoir construction has been completed and the facilities are now in the testing phase.

Additionally, water pipelines work is 95 percent complete and is now in the testing phase.

Williston Reservoir, Canada

In northeast British Columbia, near the towns of Hudson’s Hope and Mackenzie, is Williston Reservoir, one of the largest in the world by volume. The Peace River flows out of the eastern edge of Williston through the Peace River Canyon.

BC Hydro’s Peace Canyon project includes the W.A.C. Bennett Dam and the associated Gordon M. Shrum Generating Station, and the Peace Canyon Dam, 23 kilometers (km) downstream, which reuses water that has already generated electricity.
Surficial geology shows Williston Lake bounded by a variety of landforms. Geological features include a series of terraces formed by glacial outwash, moraines, and lacustrine deposits as well as alluvial fans and steep slopes of sedimentary rock. The major physiographic units include the Cassiar-Columbia Mountains bounding the western edge of Williston Lake, the Rocky Mountain trench of which the Finlay and Parsnip Reach occupy and the eastern systems including the Rocky Mountains, through which the Peach Reach passes.

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Science & Technology

FG to invest N600 billion in power sector



Federal Government has approved N600billion to be injected into the nation’s electricity market, Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), said on Wednesday. Speaking with reporters at the Market Operator’s (MO) Participants/Key Stakeholders 2019 Third Quarter Interactive Forum in Abuja, it’s MO, Edmund Eje, said the fund would be disbursed soon.

According to him, the intervention is for the payment of the shortfall in electricity invoices for the entire market.

He said the intervention is not restricted to a single chain in the market, but a holistic one.

He said: “The intervention is at a very advanced level. It has been signed by President Muhammadu Buhari.”
Eje recalled that since 2015, the outstanding bill that the distribution companies (DisCos) have recorded is about N250billion.

Meanwhile, the decision was that the government should not reverse the privatization of the distribution firms, it would rather invoke its regulation force to whip the debtors into line.

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Science & Technology

Pumped Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES) for backup and Bulk energy storage capacity planning in Nigeria



The accelerated growth of the energy economy and the demand for electricity in Nigeria is still highly dependent on the irregular and unreliable power supply from the National Grid. Evidently, the varying demand for electricity is barely compensated for as reserve power sources do not exist on the Grid. To achieve a desirable balanced load factor adequate forms of energy storage must be integrated at different levels of the power chain.

Father and son fixing the Generator

It wouldn’t be a false claim that the erratic power supply in Nigeria is the most significant factor hindering economic and industrial development in the country. Yet, the country is still not getting it right in terms of Electricity supply reliability. A major setback is that the power supply is erratic. Predicting the availability of electric power from the national grid is as good as playing Russian roulette.

In addition to the problem of supply, the flip-flop nature of the supply causes significant damage to an unaccounted number of domestic appliance and equipments across various industries in Nigeria. Also, the erratic supply is largely responsible for obstructing the normal flow of human and electrically powered processes at domestic and industrial levels, which would have operated at optimum levels if maintained with a steady supply of power. This obstructions ultimately amounts to a substantial amount of wasted resources unaccounted for in Nigeria at a huge cost to the National economy.

Recommended solution

“In a developed Economy when the demand for electricity is greater than the baseload, the National Grid reacts by providing additional electricity, but in the Nigerian Grid, this simply means ‘Powercut’, and indefinitely. For decades to date, Nigerians have had no options but forced to use generators to compensate for the deficiency from the National Grid or make do without electric power, this shouldn’t be the case in 2019 moving forward.”

“Our recommendation is the Pumped Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES) for backup and Bulk energy storage capacity planning in Nigeria (a Power Bank). Pumped Hydro-Electricity power stations have a very short start-up time and can be readily used to provide additional electricity at peak times. Regional Backup bulk energy storage plants with large scale (>100 MW) energy storage capacity plan in Nigeria must be considered to reduce the use of fossil fuel-powered generators currently widely compensating for the Erratic power supplied from the Grid for domestic and industrial consumption. Pumped Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES) Stations should be commissioned at strategic regional locations to enhance the efforts of the power distribution sector. This would ultimately reduce our national carbon footprint and the financial cost implications associated with power disruptions and the procurement/running of fossil fuel-powered generators.”  – KO

The Paris Agreement, a global agreement on the reduction of climate change is compelling green technologies in various sectors of Science and Engineering. In the Automobile industry, it is accelerating the development of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and energy storage in batteries. Another interesting spinoff of the Paris Agreement is a need for Bulk energy storage of intermittent renewable energy needed to power green technologies. This is also driving the rapid development of technologies associated with the efficiency of capture/transfer of stored energy, mechanical efficiency of electric motors and generators etc. Currently, EVs convert about 59%–62% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels.

These recent developments build a brighter business case for Pumped Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES), as the systems are made up mainly of a similar mechanical component as in the transfer of stored energy in EVs. Despite the difference in the scale/sides of the systems, the energy transfer aspect and transmission losses of these technologies are relatively similar. The technical feasibility of a Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES) installation is determined mainly by the efficiency of the systems of motors/pumps and generators.

In a PHES system, motors are used to run multiple parallel efficient centrifugal pumps lifting water for gravitational potential energy storage, and the technology could be scaled and adapted as required at difference regional stations across the country.

PHES station typically consists of reversible pumps/generators. Currently, GE (General Electric) is investing in the development of Hydro Variable Speed Pumped Storage technology specifically for this function.

Fundamentally, the method stores energy in the form of the gravitational potential energy of water pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. The pumps are powered by intermittent energy sources such as solar, wind and other renewables and Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power from National Grid (N.E.P.A) to be saved for periods of higher demand (night-time weekends etc). During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. The reservoirs used with pumped storage are relatively smaller compared to conventional hydroelectric dams of similar power capacity, and generating periods are often less than half a day.

Hydro Variable Speed Pumped Storage

Pumped storage is the largest-capacity form of grid energy storage available, and, as of 2017, the United States Department of Energy Global Energy Storage Database reports that Pumped Hydro Electricity (PHE) accounts for over 95% of all active tracked storage installations worldwide, with a total installed nameplate capacity of over 184 GW, of which about 25 GW is in the United States. The round-trip energy efficiency of PHE varies between 70%–80%, with some sources claiming up to 87%.

“Although pumped storage is a net user of power when used in conjunction with other forms of renewable generation to pump water back up to the top of a reservoir, it can help to resolve intermittency issues associated with other renewable technologies like solar and wind. Pumped storage hydropower is currently the only proven and by far the most widely adopted, technology for large scale energy storage. It provides a dynamic response and offers critical backup during periods of excess demand by maintaining grid stability. 

In Nigeria, PHE can ultimately provide electricity-market opportunities along with other benefits such as energy storage and distribution, balancing and reserve power sources, voltage and frequency control, cost management and load shaping and levelling. Considering the role of pumped storage as a robust solution to the Nigerian erratic power supply problem should become more critical looking forward.” -KO


The Liberty Times™ Scholarship program 

We are starting a PhD / MSc Scholarship funding Program Sponsor by The Liberty Times™ Nigeria. Funds would be raised on a case by case basis in collaboration with our Corporate partners, the aim is to provide a platform to facilitate the funding of Research and development of solutions in issues we are investigating that affects society largely. Click here for Updates of the scholarship program


A Potential PhD / MSc Scholarship Opportunity is available for a candidate to contribute to the development of advanced Bulk energy storage systems with a focus on The Pumped Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES) system in a multidisciplinary research team.

Project Description

  • Earn money whilst you Work and Study!
  • 3-year term of PhD 1-year of MSc
  • Scholarships Available, $1,000 p.a. Tax-Free

Alongside the Nigerian Erratic Power Supply problem, as highlighted in the article above, globally, there is a rapid increase in green energy demand considering the potential drastic effects of climate change, as highlighted by the Paris Agreement, the global agreement on the reduction of climate change.

There is an urgent need for developing effective energy storage systems to finally end the reliance on fossil fuel-powered generators compensating for the Erratic power supplied from the Grid for domestic and industrial consumption in Nigeria.

The role:

This research is aimed at providing a detailed investigation of the economic justification for advanced Bulk energy storage systems with a focus on the Pumped Hydro-Electricity Storage (PHES) system in Nigeria. The research would be considering the following multiple goals:

  • The Technical benefits such as energy storage and distribution, balancing and reserve power sources, voltage and frequency control, cost management and load shaping and levelling.
  • Environmental and social benefits: Rural electrification, Irrigation and flood control opportunities.
  • Proposed Locations: The desirable and Feasible location would be investigated based on need factors and topography.
  • The Construction: Aspects of design infrastructure, Project Management and cost would also be addressed.
  • Business case and Funding ideas: Electricity-market opportunities, Project financial etc.

The successful applicants will have the opportunity to work on a highly topical area and within a world-class research team. The studies are to be conducted at the Faculty of Engineering at a Nigerian University.

The person:

  • Applicants should have at least a first-class BSc Honours degree (or equivalent) in Electrical / Electronics Engineering, Physics, or a related field.
  •  Applicants who have publications and research experience at Master level are preferred.
  •  Applicants with degrees from a reputable University ( top 400 in the world – based on QS ranking or similar) are preferred.
  • Consideration will also be given to applicants who do not meet all the criteria above but are applicants of Nigerian descent. International students with a Master degree from a reputable university are also encouraged to apply.

Send your CV including final grades for your degrees and publication list, academic transcripts, English test (if applicable) and details of 2-3 references by e-mail to

For more details contact: Kenneth Oronsaye BSc. Electrical / Electronics MSc. Instrumentation manchester University by e-mail:  / WhatsApp: +447400252255  / +2348183426846

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Science & Technology

Buhari expresses worry over abuse of technology



President Muhammadu Buhari on Friday noted that technology has been abused as a tool for instigating violence in the country, instead of its good intent. He spoke at the State House while receiving the Chairman and Board members of the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN).

He said “Generally, technology has been an enabler for good however in recent times, we are seeing this platform more and more being used to instigate violence and hate.

“Nowhere is this disturbing trend more apparent than in the various media platform, where fake news is gaining momentum and is being used to divide and destabilize communities and indeed nations around the world
“We see images being manipulated to give legitimacy to lies. We hear a voice on radio preaching falsehood and hatred. We also read stories that are already sponsored by individuals who stand to gain at the expense of truth, peace, and harmony,” he said.

Despite all these, he said, that the powerful weapon that can counter such manipulations is the truth.

He said: “As I mentioned a few months ago, at the World Economic Forum in Jordan, since digital information age is borderless, this means we must be ready to respond with the best weapon we have; truth.”
The President urged journalists to save their profession by tackling the growing trend of fake news.

“Journalism as a profession is primarily based on being truthful. With the growing increase in fake news, the future of your profession is under threat and therefore you must be ready to correct this and safeguard your professionalism and reputation,” the President advised.

While giving the FRCN a special assignment, the President said: “In the case of Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, you must proactively develop programs based on truth, facts, and broader national interest.

“You should also have strategies to react to fake information and sensitize our citizens not to believe stories at face value especially when the source is unknown or not credible, where supporting facts are not available.”

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National News

Nigeria’s power generation drops to 3,390MW



Nigeria’s power generation dropped to 3,390.7 megawatts on Monday as seven plants, including three built under the National Integrated Power Project, sat idle.

Electricity generation has been hovering around 2,600MW and 3,800MW as of 6.00 am every day since the start of this month, according to data obtained by our correspondent. It plunged to 2,692.7MW on June 7.

Seven power plants, namely Afam IV&V, Alaoji NIPP, Olorunsogo NIPP, Gbarain NIPP, Okpai IPP, AES IPP and ASCO IPP, did not generate any megawatts of electricity as of 6.00 am on Monday.

Total generation fell slightly to 3,429MW as of 6.00 am on Sunday from 3,461.7MW on Saturday, data from the Nigeria Electricity System Operator, an arm of the Transmission Company of Nigeria, showed.

The amount of electricity produced by the nation’s 27 power plants stood at 3,898.9MW as of 6.00 am on Friday, the highest level achieved so far this month at that time of the day.

The plants generated 4,050MW as of 6.00 am on May 30 but their total output dropped to 3,161.6MW on June 1, according to the data.

The system operator put the nation’s installed generation capacity at 12,910.40MW; available capacity at 7,652.60MW; transmission wheeling capacity at 8,100MW; and the peak generation ever attained at 5,375MW.

The nation generates most of its electricity from gas-fired power plants, while output from hydropower plants makes up about 30 per cent of the total.

Last month, the power grid experienced what the Managing Director of TCN, Mr Usman Mohammed, described as the worst system instability since he assumed office.

The data from the system operator showed that power generation plunged to zero megawatt as of 6.00 am on May 9 and 10.

The TCN, which manages the national grid, is still fully owned and operated by the government.

The grid has continued to suffer system collapse over the years amid a lack of spinning reserve that is meant to forestall such occurrences. It has suffered seven collapses so far this year.

Spinning reserve is the generation capacity that is online but unloaded and that can respond within 10 minutes to compensate for generation or transmission outages.

Out of the five power stations meant to provide spinning reserves, none has any actual reserve, with the contracted reserve put at 295MW.

The power stations are Egbin, Delta, Olorunsogo NIPP, Geregu NIPP and Omotosho NIPP.

More than five years after the privatisation, the investors who took over the six generation companies and 11 distribution companies that emerged after the unbundling of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria are still grappling with the old problems in the sector.

The sector is plagued with problems of gas supply shortages, limited distribution networks, limited transmission line capacity, huge metering gap, electricity theft, and high technical and commercial losses, among others.

The financial viability of the Nigerian electricity supply industry remains the most significant challenge threatening the sustainability of the power sector, according to the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission.

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